Thursday, November 28, 2019
Hodgkins Disease Essays - Anatomical Pathology, RTT,
Hodgkin's Disease Hodgkins Disease Cancers arising from the lymph nodes or other sites of lymphoid tissue are broadly termed lymphomas. This group of diseases is divided into Hodgkins disease and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. In both conditions, there is a replacement of normal lymphatic tissue by collections of abnormal lymphoma cells. The lymphatic system are a complex network of specialised cells and organs that defend the body against infection. Lymphatic organs include the bone marrow, spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, appendix and clumps of tissue in the small bowel. A function of the lymphatic system is to nurture and mature the B and T-lymphocytes (white blood cells vital to immune function). Cancerous changes can take place when mutation leads to failure of the cells maturing of the lymphoid cells. Lymphomas are regarded as cancers of lymphocytes. The process which lymphoma occurs consists of a series of events where normal lymphocyte cells cease to mature and develop in an orderly fashion. The genetic make-up of the lymphocyte is altered, resulting in the formation of altered lymph tissue (tumours) or altered lymphocyte secretions. Typically, patients present with a painless swelling of lymph node, with or without fever and night sweats and weight loss. How Hodgkins Is Caused. The exact cause of Hodgkins disease isnt known. However, different of how it is caused. 1. Viruses The Epstein-Barr virus is a herpes virus that causes infectious mononucleosis (also known as glandular fever). Epstein-Barr virus genes have been identified in tissue samples of approximately 20-50% of individuals with Hodgkins disease. However, it is yet to be established whether the Epstein-Barr virus can cause Hodgkins disease. The most of people who develop glandular fever will not develop Hodgkins disease. 2. Genetics Hodgkins disease is associated with a number of rare immune disorders. Chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematous have also been associated with Hodgkins disease. Further, the recipients of heart, kidney and other organ transplant have been found to be at an increased risk of developing the illness. There is some evidence suggesting that first degree relatives of individuals with Hodgkins disease is at a small, but increased risk of developing the disease. However, Hodgkins disease is not directly heritable. Involved nodes in the neck, groin and armpits tend to be painless, firm, and rubbery. In some instances, the nodes may spontaneously increase and decrease in size. Because Hodgkins disease is associated with a defect in the maturation of the lymphocyte, the immune system may be impaired. As such repeated infections may occur. Symptoms The symptoms of Hodgkins disease frequently depend upon the stage of disease. Staging defines the extent to which the disease has spread throughout the body. Moreover, it often determines which treatment(s) will be required. Hodkins has 4 distinct stages of Hodgkins disease, these being stages 1-4. Each stage is further defined as exhibiting either A or B symptoms. These symptoms refer to either the absence of A or presence of B unexplained weight loss in the preceding 6 months, fever greater than 38?C, and or night sweats. Tumour suppressor genes: In health this family of genes usually act as a counter balance for oncogenesis. It is thought that they may be responsible for repairing gene damage in cells, or are growth inhibitor genes. In Hodgkins disease, there are often evidences of mutation in tumour suppressor genes as well as other genes. Stage 1. Stage 1 Hodgkins disease affects a single lymph node or lymph node region. The lymph nodes most commonly affected are the nodes in the neck, armpits or groin. Stage 2. Stage 2 disease is associated with lymph node involvement in 2 or more regions. However, the nodes must be involved in only one side of the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a muscle lying beneath the lungs. It moves up and down allowing air to move in and out of the lungs. Stage 3. Stage 3 disease is associated with lymphoma involvement on both sides of the diaphragm. The spleen is frequently involved at this stage. If the spleen is involved the abdomen may become tender or enlarged, with or without symptoms of abdominal fullness and distension. Stage 4. When Hodgkins disease enters stage 4, disease can spread through the body to area outside of the lymphatic system.